Innumeracy (1988) is a book by mathematician John Allen Paulos about what the subtitle says: mathematical illiteracy and its consequences. It also provides a number of ways and thoughts to help solve the problem.
Though several reviews of this book have been antagonistic, particularly this one, I found the book a delight. It would be somewhat unhelpful for me to go over the mathematical topics in the book, as it was the way they were presented, not the facts themselves, that made this book a joy to read.
I will, however, elaborate on Paulos’ idea of a “logarithmic safety index.” In fact, I have written a short article called “A Logarithmic Safety Index” that adds to Paulos. I thought it was too long to include as a blog post, so for anyone who would want to read it, go to the “Essays” tab near the top of this page. Or, if you’re just too lazy to do that, go here.